Canada Initiates Development of PEM Fuel Cell Technology
In 1983, Canada’s Department of National Defense awarded Ballard Power Systems a contract to produce a low-cost PEM fuel cell. The integration of new flow-field designs and membranes enabled world-leading performance to a single PEM fuel cell, leading developers to believe that PEM fuel cells could one day power a car.
First Fuel Cell Bus Debuted
In 1993, the world’s first fuel cell bus was unveiled. The 32 foot shuttle bus, which could carry up to 20 people, demonstrated the critical role fuel cells would play in the future of public transit. Between 1999 and 2001, six full-size transit buses operated in revenue service with the Chicago Transit Authority and BC Transit in British Columbia. The six buses travelled more than 73,000 miles and carried in excess of 200,000 passengers.
First Fuel Cell Car Utilizing Canadian Technology
In 1994, Daimler-Benz introduced the NECar I, the world’s first car utilizing Canadian-developed fuel cell technology. This vehicle needed 12 fuel cell stacks to generate 50 kW of power. Since this time, over 150 cars have been demonstrated incorporating Canada-made fuel cell technologies.
First Fuel Cell Forklift
In 1996, the first fuel cell forklift was demonstrated tripling the runtime of a comparable battery-electric forklift (to 18 hours) with constant voltage output and the ability to refuel in less than three minutes.
Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap
In 2003, Canada released its first commercialization roadmap aimed at accelerating full-scale commercialization of Canadian hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The Roadmap was updated In 2008, further outlining why hydrogen and fuel cells are considered an essential part of Canada’s future low carbon energy future for transportation and stationary power.
In 2004, the Hydrogen Village public/private partnership was formed in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) to demonstrate various hydrogen production and delivery platforms as well as fuel cells for stationary and transportation applications. This program was funded by Hydrogen Village Members, Natural Resources Canada and the Government of Ontario.
Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program
The Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program is a collaborative multi- year vehicle deployment and evaluation activity involving the Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Ford Motor Company, the Province of British Columbia and the Government of Canada. This unique program, for the first time, put fuel-cell-powered cars into the hands of select Canadian users for independent operation and evaluation under real-world conditions. Vehicle users include AFCC, BC Hydro, BC Transit, Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, City of Vancouver and Powertech Labs.
The British Columbia Hydrogen Highway was launched in 2004 as a large-scale demonstration and deployment program for mobile, stationary, and portable hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Projects under the Hydrogen Highway umbrella include the Integrated Waste Hydrogen Utilization Project located in North Vancouver, and seven hydrogen fueling stations operating in Victoria, Surrey, Vancouver, Port Coquitlam, and Whistler. The Hydrogen HIghway received one of the first "Sustainability Stars" from the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic Games recognizing its Games-time sustainability initiatives which included the operation of fuel cell buses in Whistler and fuel cell cars in the Lower Mainland area of Vancouver.
2010 Olympics – World’s Largest Fleet of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses
In advance of the 2010 Olympics in Whistler, 20 fuel cell powered buses were delivered and continue to operate as part of BC Transit’s fleet. The low-floor buses have a range of 500 km, a top speed of 90 km/h and a life expectancy of 20 years. They are the sixth generation fuel cell bus developed in Canada.